Most sedating benzo
Sedatives are drugs that decrease activity and have a calming, relaxing effect. The difference between sedatives and hypnotics, then, is usually the amount of the dose—lower doses have a calming effect and higher doses cause sleep. Drugs used mainly to cause sleep are called hypnotics.Elderly patients who need a sedative-hypnotic sometimes take chloral derivatives, which include chloral hydrate.These drugs are less likely to cause restlessness in older patients who suffer from confusion or dementia .This shift in chloride ions results in hyperpolarization (a less excitable state) and stabilization.Please see package insert for additional information and possible updates.These drugs include benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepines. Sedative hypnotics carry risks for withdrawal, dependency, and rebound insomnia.The chance of risk for these problems varies among different drugs. Many over-the-counter sleeping medications use antihistamines, which cause drowsiness. Doxylamine (Unison) is another antihistamine used in sleep medications.
Newer short-acting non-benzodiazepines can induce sleep with fewer side effects than benzodiazepines.
They have also been used as induction agents in anaesthetic practice.
Generally regarded as safe and effective drugs, their safety profile is becoming increasingly questioned.(1,2)The benzodiazepines were originally marketed as improvements on the barbiturates but it became evident that they were much safer in overdose, had fewer drug interactions and probably a low propensity for both dependence in licit medical use and illicit abuse "on the street".
Buspirone differs from typical benzodiazepine anxiolytics in that it does not exert anticonvulsant or muscle relaxant effects.
It also lacks the prominent sedative effect that is associated with more typical anxiolytics.